Secure and Reliable Routing Protocols for Heterogeneous Multihop Wireless Networks
A secure protocol for Establishing STAble and reliable Routes (E-STAR) is proposed for establishing stable and reliable routes in heterogeneous multihop wireless networks (HMWNs). E-STAR combines payment and trust systems with a trust-based and energy-aware routing protocol. The payment system rewards the nodes that relay others’ packets and charges those that send packets. The trust system evaluates the nodes’ competence and reliability in relaying packets in terms of multi-dimensional trust values. The trust values are attached to the nodes’ public-key certificates to be used in making routing decisions. Two routing protocols is developed to direct traffic through those highly-trusted nodes having sufficient energy to minimize the probability of breaking the route. By this way, E-STAR can stimulate the nodes not only to relay packets, but also to maintain route stability and report correct battery energy capability. This is because any loss of trust will result in loss of future earnings. Moreover, for the efficient implementation of the trust system, the trust values are computed by processing the payment receipts. Analytical results demonstrate that E-STAR can secure the payment and trust calculation without false accusations. Simulation results demonstrate that our routing protocols can improve the packet delivery ratio and route stability.