Energy-Efficient Reliable Routing Considering Residual Energy in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
Two novel energy-aware routing algorithms to be proposed for wireless ad hoc networks, called reliable minimum energy cost routing (RMECR) and reliable minimum energy routing (RMER). RMECR addresses three important requirements of ad hoc networks: energy-efficiency, reliability, and prolonging network lifetime. It considers the energy consumption and the remaining battery energy of nodes as well as quality of links to find energy-efficient and reliable routes that increase the operational lifetime of the network. RMER, on the other hand, is an energy-efficient routing algorithm which finds routes minimizing the total energy required for end-to-end packet traversal. RMER and RMECR are proposed for networks in which either hop-by-hop or end-to-end retransmissions ensure reliability. Simulation studies show that RMECR is able to find energy-efficient and reliable routes similar to RMER, while also extending the operational lifetime of the network. This makes RMECR an elegant solution to increase energy-efficiency, reliability, and lifetime of wireless ad hoc networks. In the design of RMECR, we consider minute details such as energy consumed by processing elements of transceivers, limited number of retransmissions allowed per packet, packet sizes, and the impact of acknowledgment packets. This adds to the novelty of this work compared to the existing studies.