A Distributed Three-hop Routing Protocol to Increase the Capacity of Hybrid Wireless Networks

A Distributed Three-hop Routing Protocol to Increase the Capacity of Hybrid Wireless Networks

A Distributed Three-hop Routing Protocol to Increase the Capacity of Hybrid Wireless Networks

Hybrid wireless networks combining the advantages of both mobile ad-hoc networks and infrastructure wireless networks have been receiving increased attention due to their ultra-high performance. An efficient data routing protocol is important in such networks for high network capacity and scalability. However, most routing protocols for these networks simply combine the ad-hoc transmission mode with the cellular transmission mode, which inherits the drawbacks of ad-hoc transmission. This paper presents a Distributed Three-hop Routing protocol (DTR) for hybrid wireless networks. To take full advantage of the widespread base stations, DTR divides a message data stream into segments and transmits the segments in a distributed manner. It makes full spatial reuse of a system via its high speed ad-hoc interface and alleviates mobile gateway congestion via its cellular interface. Furthermore, sending segments to a number of base stations simultaneously increases throughput and makes full use of widespread base stations. In addition, DTR significantly reduces overhead due to short path lengths and the elimination of route discovery and maintenance. DTR also has a congestion control algorithm to avoid overloading base stations. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show the
superiority of DTR in comparison with other routing protocols in terms of throughput capacity, scalability and mobility resilience. The results also show the effectiveness of the congestion control algorithm in balancing the load between base stations.


  • Dousse et al. built a Poisson Boolean model to study how a BS increases the capacity of a MANET.
  • Lin et al. proposed a Multihop Cellular Network and derived its throughput.
  • Hsieh et al. investigated a hybrid network architecture with both a distributed coordination function and a point coordination function.
  • Luo et al. proposed a unified cellular and ad-hoc network architecture for wireless communication.
  • Cho et al. studied the impact of concurrent transmission in a downlink direction on the system capacity of a hybrid wireless network.
  • In Two-hop, when a node’s bandwidth to a BS is larger than that of each neighbor, it directly sends a message to the BS. Otherwise, it chooses a neighbor with a higher channel and sends a message to it, which further forwards the message to the BS.
  • Wu et al. proposed using ad-hoc relay stations to dynamically relay traffic from one cell to another in order to avoid traffic congestion in BSes.
  • Li et al. surveyed a number of multi-hop cellular network (MCN) architectures in literature, and compared and discussed methods to reduce the cost of deployment for MCNs.
  • Thulasiraman et al. further considered the wireless interference in optimizing the resource allocation in hybrid wireless networks.
  • Liu et al. theoretically studied the capacity of hybrid wireless networks under an one-dimensional network topology and a two dimensional strip topology.
  • Wang et al. studied the multicast throughput of hybrid wireless networks and designed an optimal multicast strategy based on deduced throughput.


  • Two-hop only considers the node transmission within a single cell, while DTR can also deal with inter-cell transmission, which is more challenging and more common than intra-cell communication in the real world.
  • Two-hop employs single-path transmission.







  • A source node divides a message stream into a number of segments.
  • Each segment is sent to a neighbor mobile node.
  • Based on the QoS requirement, these mobile relay nodes choose between direct transmission or relay transmission to the BS.
  • In relay transmission, a segment is forwarded to another mobile node with higher capacity to a BS than the current node.
  • In direct transmission, a segment is directly forwarded to a BS.
  • The number of routing hops in DTR is confined to three, including at most two hops in the ad-hoc transmission mode and one hop in the cellular transmission mode.


  • The first hop forwarding distributes the segments of a message in different directions to fully utilize the resources, and the possible second hop forwarding ensures the high capacity of the forwarder.
  • DTR also has a congestion control algorithm to balance the traffic load between the nearby BSes in order to avoid traffic congestion at BSes.
  • DTR uses distributed transmission involving multiple cells, which makes full use of system resources and dynamically balances the traffic load between neighboring cells.
  • SOFTWARE SPECIFICATIONProgramming Language  : JDK 1.5 or higherDatabase  : MySQL 5.0

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